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The history of the patron saints of Ireland has yet to be written. The country has passed through long periods of trouble and oppression, yet several of the Celtic dedications have been preserved and linger in some districts even to this day. The Catholic church is often known simply by the name of the street in which it is situated, as the Cathedral, Marlborough St., Dublin, or the Jesuit church in Gardiner Street. A similar instance occurs in Dublin with regard to the church dedicated to St. Francis of Assisi, but always styled "Adam and Eve", from the fact that when the building was erected in the seventeenth century, there swung at the end of the alley, in which the chapel was situated, a public house sign with the full figures of our first parents. The two religious edifices in a town are sometimes called the "Cathedral" and the "Old Chapel". In the days of persecution, when churches and endowments had alike been confiscated, the conditions of Catholic worship recalled the secrecy of the catacombs. During the nineteenth century the old "barns" that had so long served for chapels were replaced by beautiful and spacious churches for which Irish saints were frequently selected as patrons; but as a rule the choice has been determined by the tendencies of modern devotion. There are dedications to the Sacred Heart, to Our Lady under her various titles, and to many of the more recently canonized saints, such as St. Vincent and St. Francis de Sales. Still the people continue to refer to the churches by the names of the streets. In Celtic times man churches were dedicated to Our Lady and called Kilmurray. All the Donaghmore (Dominica Major) churches were dedicated to St. Patrick, because they had been founded by him. Other dedications include Bridget (Kilbride), Peter (Kilpedder), Paul (Kilpool), Catherine of Alexandria (Killadreenan, Kilcatherine). The Holy Sepulchre found a place among the oldest dedications. In Dublin or the neighbourhood the titles of Peter, Bride Martin, Kevin, McTail (St. Michael lePole), Nicholas within and Nicholas without the walls, were to be met with. Then there were churches under the patronage of All Hallows, Macud (Kilmacud), Machonna, Fintan, Brendan (Carrickbrenan), Begnet (St. Bega, Kilbegnet), Gobhain (Kilgobbin), Tiernan (Kilter, Kilternan). Bern's church was so called because founded by a priest of Byrne's clan. The title of Cell Ingen Leinin (Church of the five daughters of Leinin, whence the name Killiney) was so called from its founders. New names were introduced by the Normans, as Audven (Dublin), being St. Ouen of. Rouen. The colony from Chester, brought over to repeople Dublin which had been decimated by the plague at the end of the twelfth century, erected a church dedicated to their patroness, St. Werburg.
During the first three centuries of the Church's history, the faithful assembled for worship in private houses, in cemeteries, or other retired places. At intervals it had been possible to erect or adapt buildings for the sacred rites of religion. Such buildings, however, were not dedicated to the saints, but were spoken of as the House of God, the House of Prayer, and sometimes as the Temple of God. They were also known as Kyriaca, Dominica, or Oratoria. Larger structures received the name of basilicas, and the term church (ecclesia) was constantly employed to designate the place where the faithful assembled to hear the word of God and partake of the sacraments. After peace had been given to the Church by Constantine, sacred edifices were freely erected, the emperor setting the example by the character and magnificence of his own foundations. The Christians had always held in deep reverence the memory of the heroes who had sealed with blood the profession of their faith. The celebration of the solemn rites had long been intimately associated with the places where the bodies of the martyrs reposed, and the choice of sites for the new edifices was naturally determined by the scene of the martyrs' sufferings, or by the spot where their sacred remains lay enshrined. The great basilicas founded by Constantine, or during his lifetime, illustrate this tendency. The churches of St. Peter, St. Paul outside the walls, St. Lawrence in Agro Verano, St. Sebastian, St. Agnes on the Via Nomentana were all cemeterial basilicas, i. e. they were built over the spot where the bodies of each of these saints lay buried. The same practice finds illustration in the churches of SS. Domitilla and Generosa, SS. Nereus and Achilleus, St. Felix at Nola, and others. From this custom of rendering honour to the relics of the martyrs were derived the names of Memori (memorial churches), Martyria, or Confessio, frequently given to churches. The name of "Title" (Titulus) has from the earliest times been employed with reference to the name of the saint by which a church is known. The practice of placing the body or some relics of a martyr under the altar of sacrifice has been perpetuated in the Church, but the dedication was early extended to confessors and holy women who were not martyrs. The underlying doctrine of patrons is that of the communion of saints, or the bond of spiritual union existing between God's servants on earth, in heaven, or in purgatory. The saints are thereby regarded as the advocates and intercessors of those who are making their earthly pilgrimage. Urban VIII (23 March, 1638) laid down the rules that should guide the faithful in the future selection of patrons of churches, cities, and countries, without, however, interfering with the traditional patrons then venerated (Acta S. Sedis, XI, 292). As during the days of persecution the most illustrious among the Christians were those who had sacrificed their lives for the faith, it was to be expected that during the fourth century the selection of the names of martyrs as titulars would everywhere prevail. But with the progress of the Church in times of comparative peace, with the development of the religious life, and the preaching of the Gospel in the different countries of Europe and Asia, bishops, priests, hermits, and nuns displayed in their lives lofty examples of Christian holiness. Churches, therefore, began to be dedicated in their honour. The choice of a particular patron has depended upon many circumstances. These, as a rule, have been one or other of the following:
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